Brain areas that are traditionally not associated with learning science can become active when people are confronted with solving physics problems, finds a study. This shows that the brain’s activity can be modified by different forms of instruction.”The neurobiological processes that underpin learning are complex and not always directly connected to what we think it means to learn,” said lead author Eric Brewe, Associate Professor at Drexel University in Pennsylvania, US. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe findings, published in the journal Frontiers in ICT, showed that newer brain regions associated with attention, working memory and problem solving – the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, sometimes called the brain’s ‘central executive network’ – showed activity when dealing with such problems.Another area that became active was the posterior cingulate cortex, which is linked to episodic memory and self-referential thought.”These changes in brain activity may be related to more complex behavioural changes in how students reason through physics questions post- relative to pre-instruction,” Brewe noted. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”These might include shifts in strategy or an increased access to physics knowledge and problem-solving resources,” he said.Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to measure blood flow in the brain, the researchers looked to map what areas become active when completing a physics reasoning task, both before a course on the concepts and after. A small group of students were taught a physics course that utilised ‘Modeling Instruction’, a style of teaching which encourages students to be active participants in their learning. “This suggests that learning physics is an imaginative process, which is not typically how people think of it,” Brewe said, in reference to the study which aimed to explore how students use their own mental models to understand new concepts.”The idea of mental models is something that people who research learning love to talk about, but have no evidence of what is happening inside brains other than what people say or do,” Brewe said. “We are actually looking for evidence from inside the brain,” he added.
3 min read Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Register Now » All’s fair in politics and war … but what about card games?For Winston Churchill, the same rules apparently applied: #NeverGiveIn.In a bizarre twist, this phrase now serves as the tagline for former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld’s inaugural mobile game Churchill Solitaire, which he created in partnership with a team of coders.Related: 6 Lessons in How to Build a Successful App“I’ve done business, politics, and war,” the 83-year-old wrote in a blog post announcing its release. “Now I’m trying my hand at mobile gaming.”Churchill Solitaire is essentially a more challenging version of the traditional card game. In place of a single deck players use two decks, and work with 10 rows of cards rather than the typical seven. Churchill played the game during World War II to sharpen his strategic thinking skills, according to Rumsfeld. In Rumsfeld’s app, there are varying levels and difficulties as players move up the ranks. Created for the most cunning of minds, a series of rules and limitations make the game especially challenging. For example, if the player doesn’t make a move in 30 seconds, he’s forced to surrender.The game’s “diabolical rules,” Rumsfeld says, are what “make it the hardest game of solitaire — and probably the most challenging and strategic game of logic or puzzle — I’ve ever played.”Rumsfeld said he learned the card game from one of the Churchill’s former proteges, André de Staercke, during a plane ride in the 1970s. Staercke had learned the game from Churchill himself.Until recent years, only a few people knew about the game and even fewer were able to find their way to victory.Inspired to share the tradition, Rumsfeld and his wife worked with a team of developers to perfect the game. The non-profit endeavor took years to build after the Churchill family gave the project their blessing. All profits will go to charity. However, a free version is available in the Apple Store for both iPhones and iPads.The motivation for the app, Rumsfeld wrote, was best explained by Staercke himself.“As my friend Andre de Staercke once put it to me, ‘What one needs in life are the pessimism of intelligence and the optimism of will,’ Rumsfeld wrote. “Play a couple hands of Churchill Solitaire, and you’ll know precisely what he meant.”Related: Lessons for the New CEO From 5 Great Leaders of HistoryA previous version of this story misidentified Donald Rumsfeld as Secretary of State. Rumsfeld served as Secretary of Defense. January 26, 2016 Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.
This story originally appeared on Bizness Apps Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global August 10, 2016 Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Register Now » “I made my app, but where are all my customers?!” As consumers look to mobile apps for the majority of their product and service needs, it’s more crucial than ever for businesses to capitalize on this market. Creating your business application is a great first step, but having customers download and return to your app is a whole other battle. Proper marketing is what sets your app apart from your competitors, ensuring top customer acquisition and retention.Check out some of the most important tactics that successful marketers are using to drive app discovery and engagement through Google.Organic searchWhen you’re just getting started, it’s important your business allocates its budget as efficiently as possible. Utilizing natural –or unpaid — Google search results through app indexing can make your app easily discoverable. App indexing allows you to attract potential users through Google search, matching what customers search with your app’s relative content. Basic SEO strategy can be used to ensure your app ranks well in Google’s natural search results, allowing you to boost app downloads at little to no cost.Paid searchGoogle play store adsReach billions of Android users with ads that appear within the Google Play Store’s search results. You can now manage your app’s ads like you do traditional text ads with keywords and bids. Google also offers tools to track metrics, such as app installations.Mobile app install adsIt’s a new world. There are now more Google searches on mobile than desktops. Search engines allow you to capitalize on this volume of traffic with paid search results. Much like organic search, mobile app install ads can be customized to particular searches to drive downloads to your app. Google is also looking to launch “streamable” apps that allow users to test them out before downloading, which would increase the importance of app indexing & paid mobile engagement ads.Re-engaging customersEnsuring that customer returns to your app is extremely important and equally difficult. A year ago, nearly 20% of apps were abandoned after their first use. Although this number is likely to decline, it is crucial to build a retention strategy that sets your app up for success.Deep linking is an extremely effective re-engagement strategy. Proper app indexing strategies will allow users to return to your app directly from the Google search results page. You can deep link searches into an already installed app and continue to market it just as you would before the user downloaded. This helps ensure your users return frequently. Be sure to keep up with your app’s push notifications too. An effective push notification strategy is a simple way to re-engage app users and improve retention rates.Your mobile app presence is absolutely necessary in today’s world. Be sure to leverage your app’s potential. 3 min read